Amortization of Bond Discount: Definition, Calculation, and Formula

Unlike coupon bonds, discount bonds do not make periodic interest payments to bondholders. Next, let’s assume that just prior to offering the bond to investors on January 1, the market interest rate for this bond increases to 10%. The corporation decides to sell the 9% bond rather than changing the bond documents to the market interest rate. Since the corporation is selling its 9% bond in a bond market which is demanding 10%, the corporation will receive less than the bond’s face amount. The interest expense is amortized over the twenty periods during which interest is paid. Amortization of the discount may be done using the straight‐line or the effective interest method.

  • In the journal entries above, it can be seen that cash received in lieu of bonds payable is at a lower price as compared to the actual face value of the bond.
  • To understand this concept, remember that a bond sold at par has a coupon rate equal to the market interest rate.
  • The number of payments bondholders will receive in the future from the corporation is always twice the number of years in the term plus 1.
  • When coupon rate is lower than market rate, company must calculate the market price of bonds.
  • To calculate the bond discount, the present value of the coupon payments and principal value must be determined.

Bonds Payable usually equal to Bonds carry amount unless there is discounted or premium. This entry records the $5,000 received for the accrued interest as a debit to Cash and a credit to Bond Interest Payable. The April 30 entry in the next year would include the accrued amount from December of last year and interest expense for Jan to April of this year. A bond that is issued at a discount is a bond that has been issued for less than the par value of the bond. The difference between the par value and the purchase price is referred to as the “discount.”

How does a bond issuer benefit from issuing a bond at a discount?

Since its future interest payments will be higher in comparison to other bonds on the market, the corporation can command a higher amount up front when the bond is issued, and the bond is sold at a premium. This means the corporation receives more cash than the face amount of the bond when it issues the bond. The corporation still pays the face amount back to the bondholders on the maturity date. A business or government may issue bonds when it needs a long-term source of cash funding.

  • The discount of $7,024 represents the present value of the $1,000 difference that the bondholders are not receiving over each of the next 10 interest periods (5 years’ interest paid semi-annually).
  • If the amount received is greater than the par value, the difference is known as the premium on bonds payable.
  • The amount of premium amortized for the last payment is equal to the balance in the premium on bonds payable account.
  • Auditors prefer that a company use the effective interest method to amortize the discount on bonds payable, given its higher level of precision.
  • In our example, the bond discount of $3,851 results from the corporation receiving only $96,149 from investors, but having to pay the investors $100,000 on the date that the bond matures.

However, it isn’t the only amount recorded as interest expense on a bond sold at a discount. Bonds issue at par value mean that the issuer sell bonds to investors at par value. In simple words, bonds are the contracts between lender and borrower, the amount of contract depends on the face value.

Pricing of bond payable

The maturity date is the date that the corporation must pay back the full face amount to the bondholders. The key difference herein is that serial bonds are a group of discount bonds. In contrast, amortizing bonds are coupon bonds that involve payments of a certain percentage of the face value of the bond periodically. Coupon bonds are debt securities that pay periodic interest payments, known as coupons, to the bondholders. These bonds have coupon rates and fixed interest rates repaid periodically, confirmed by the signed indenture agreement. Discount amortizations are likely to be reviewed by a company’s auditors, and so should be carefully documented.

Journal Entry for Bonds Buyback

The following T-account shows how the balance in Discount on Bonds Payable will be decreasing over the 5-year life of the bond. Get stock recommendations, portfolio guidance, and more from The Motley Fool’s premium services. Essentially, the company incurs the additional interest, amounting to $7,024, at the time of issuance by receiving only $92,976 rather than $100,000.

4.4 Bond Transactions When Contract Rate is More Than Market Rate

We always record Bond Payable at the amount we have to pay back which is the face value or principal amount of the bond. The difference between the price we sell it and the amount we have to pay back is recorded in a liability account called Premium on Bonds Payable. Just like with a discount, the premium amount will be removed over the life of the bond by amortizing (which simply means dividing) it over the life of the bond. The premium will decrease bond interest expense when we record the semiannual interest payment. Thus, bonds payable appear on the liability side of the company’s balance sheet.

When the coupon rate equal to the effective interest rate, the present value of bond value and annual interest is equal to the par value. Issuers must set the contract rate before the bonds are actually sold to allow time for such activities as printing the bonds. Assume, for instance, that the contract rate for a bond issue is set at 12%.

Comparison of Amortization Methods

Related to a similar front to serial bonds, the amortizing bond is a singular bond that repays a certain amount of the interest and the principal on each coupon payment date. These bonds, which either corporations or governmental entities can issue, will have interest rates vary based on market conditions of banks borrowing secured overnight financing rates(SOFR) (replaced LIBOR). Bonds often take companies months to construct and line up the proper legal structures before they are actually sold to the public. This means that the bond terms like interest, payback period, and principle amount are set months in advance before they are issued to the public. The premium or discount is to be amortized to interest expense over the life of the bonds.

The Discount on Bonds Payable account is a contra-liability account in that it is offset against the Bonds Payable account on the balance sheet in order to arrive at the bonds’ net carrying value. There are four journal entries that relate to bonds that are issued at a premium. There are four journal entries that relate to bonds that are issued at a discount. This same journal entry for $6,000 is made every six months, on 6/30 and 12/31, for a total of 10 times over the term of the five-year bond. Bond pricing is influenced by interest rates, with an inverse relationship between rates and bond value. Bonds usually offer higher interest rates than market rates to attract investors, and the difference is called a premium.


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